India, the world's top-ranked Test side, failed to cope with overcast and swing-friendly conditions in both their innings, with a rain-marred match effectively over in under two days' standard playing time.
India were bowled out for 107 in their first innings, and the only substantial partnership in their second saw Ravichandran Ashwin and Hardik Pandya add 55 runs for the seventh wicket.
Anderson, who took his 100th Test wicket at Lord's earlier in the day, returned to dismiss Kuldeep Yadav and Mohammed Shami.
Allied to the first-innings return of five for 20, that meant Anderson had a match haul of nine for 43.
India captain Virat Kohli batted with a lower back pain in the second Test against England but is confident of regaining full fitness ahead of the next game starting in Nottingham on 18 August. "We've given them nothing", said Root on Sunday. Victory, achieved on the fourth day of a rain-marred match featuring a total first-day washout, put England 2-0 up in this five-match series. "I am not very proud of the way we played", said Kohli.
"Even though the conditions suited (him), you've still got to put the ball in the right area and ask the right questions of the batters". Describing the home team's triumph as a powerful statement Broad maintained that the focus will be to maintain the same levels of energy throughout the five-match series.
Woakes's 137 not out, his maiden Test century, was the cornerstone of England's 396 for seven declared. He walked off unbeaten on 120*, his efforts (and those of Jonny Bairstow, who made 93) have given England a 250 run lead. "We've got to pull up our socks and produce better cricket India", he wrote.
Yet it was Chris Woakes who was named man-of-the-match after starring with both bat and ball.
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"To get a hundred and be on the honours board is something that will stay with me forever", said Woakes.
An inspired spell from Stuart Broad, during which he took four wickets in seven overs for just seven runs, put England on the brink of victory.
He now has 553 Test wickets and is just 10 behind Australian Glenn McGrath's record for the most wickets taken by a seamer in Test cricket.
England's Stuart Broad picked four wickets in the second innings. Anderson then got his 101st wicket at Lord's when he trapped Rahul lbw in the 7th over, leaving India struggling at 13/2.
Broad took over from Anderson to dismiss Ajinkya Rahane, smartly caught at third slip by Keaton Jennings for 13, and then bowled Cheteshwar Pujara off his pads for 17.
Kohli was clearly struggling with a stiff back on Sunday, the injury seeing him bat at number five rather than his usual number four position.
Kohli, needing prolonged on-field treatment, fell for 17 when caught by debutant Ollie Pope at short-leg off Broad.
The wasted review proved disastrous, as Karthik was adjudged lbw very next ball.