The unidentified girl was attacked early Sunday near Grand Junction, about 240 miles (386 kilometers) west of Denver, when she went outside to check on what she thought were noises made by her dog.
Then, the mother, who was not identified, saw her girl being dragged by the black bear. When the mother started screaming at the animal, the bear dropped the girl, police said. The child was transported to St. Mary's hospital where she is expected to recover.
Breaux said the bear bit the girl multiple times on her backside.
The attack happened about 2:30 a.m. Sunday, according to KDVR.
CPW officers will transport the bear's carcass to the agency's Wildlife Health Laboratory in Fort Collins for a full necropsy, according to a press release.
Wildlife officials say bear attacks are rare in that area.
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"This bear was about 125 to 130 pounds, about two years old", said Colorado Parks and Wildlife Area Wildlife Manager Kirk Oldham during a news conference on Monday afternoon. "One of the things we want to do is go to the family and tell them we killed the right bear, and we're glad to hear that she will make a full recovery", Porras said.
"Fortunately she had no life-threatening injuries, no injuries to her brain or chest organs or abdominal organs and no fractures".
Another bear was spotted about a half-mile from the girl's home a week ago, Romatzke said.
"The goal is to trap the bear, and if we do, we are going to put that bear down", Porras said.
Colorado has an estimated 17,000 to 20,000 bears, a population that's considered robust in a state of 5.7 million people that also attracts many tourists.
CPW is asking everyone to secure trash, keep pet food inside and immediately report any bear sightings to them.