The dominance is lower in Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. Titled "India State-level Disease Burden Report and Technical Paper", the comprehensive report indicated that although the disease burden due to malnutrition dropped in India substantially since 1990, it was still responsible for 15 percent of the total disease burden in 2016.
NCDs dominate infectious and associated diseases in Kerala, Goa, and Tamil Nadu.
To highlight this, the gap between the highest life expectancy in an Indian state and the lowest life expectancy now is 11 years, and the difference between the state with the highest infant mortality rate and lowest rate is 4 fold. "The specific disease burden trends for each state in this report provide a reference for planning interventions that are needed to address the major disease problems in each state", he said.
The proportion of all deaths in India due to communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases reduced from 53.6% in 1990 to 27.5% in 2016, while those due to non-communicable diseases increased from 37.9% to 61.8%, and those due to injuries changed from 8.5% to 10.7%. A lot less number of people are burdened with communicable diseases, but the burden of non-communicable diseases is rising. But that is a rare bit of good news as India faces a severe lifestyle crisis, with its disease burden from communicable diseases such as diarrhoea and tuberculosis to non-communicable diseases like heart disease and diabetes, the study has found. "Outdoor air pollution continues to pose a significant and growing challenge to population health", according to the study, conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Public Heath Foundation of India (PHFI) and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME).
Ironically, the life expectancy for females in Uttar Pradesh was 66.8 years - below the national average and 12 years less than in Kerala, where it was 78.7 years.
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Among the leading non-communicable diseases, the largest disease burden or DALY rate increase from 1990 to 2016 was observed for diabetes, at 80%, and ischaemic heart disease, at 34%. The report was on Tuesday launched by Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu, who called for the immediate tackling of high disease burden caused by malnutrition.
Road injuries and self-harm, which includes suicides and non-fatal outcomes of self-harm, are the leading contributors to the injury burden in India.
The disease burden and risk factor estimates for every state of India from 1990 to 2016 in this report are the most comprehensive description of disease epidemiology attempted so far in a single standardised framework for every part of the country. The burden of household air pollution has decreased during this period due to decreasing use of solid fuels for cooking, and that of outdoor air pollution has increased due to a variety of pollutants from power production, industry, vehicles, construction, and waste burning.
The per person disease burden dropped by 36% from 1990 to 2016. Such evidence-based health planning in each state would result in health improvements in every state, reduce the health inequalities between the states, and help make more rapid progress towards achieving the overall health targets for India.
Even though Delhi has now been facing a deteriorating quality of air due to pollution, it faces a marginally lower health risks, when compared to states like Bihar.