Duterte also said he would tell Trump to "lay off" on the issue of supposed human rights violations associated with his deadly war on drugs that resulted in the deaths of thousands of alleged suspects.
"It is fallacious reasoning for Duterte to accuse human rights groups and advocates of meddling in Philippine local affairs because the protection and promotion of human rights are global concerns as pronounced in worldwide conventions and even domestic legislation", the lawmaker said.
Duterte and Trump talked briefly on the sidelines of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Leaders' Meeting in Da Nang, Vietnam.
Late past year he admitted killing suspected criminals during his time as mayor of Davao City.
"Well, I shook his hands, and before the closing (Trump) kept on saying 'buh-bye, '" Duterte said. "I'd have rumbles here, rumbles there".
There was no immediate reaction from the White House to this latest admission.
"Jail? Jeez. When I was a teenager, I was in and out of jail", he said, in a mixture of Tagalog and English. "When he's criticized, he lashes out".
"He is not the human rights commission".
In a brief discussion, Trump told Duterte, "see you tomorrow".
Prior to their meeting here, the two presidents have shared at least two phone calls-the first when Duterte congratulated Trump for his victory in the USA presidential polls a year ago. Yet Duterte still cautioned Trump against bringing it up. [He] reprimanded me. Why you reprimand me? That is my business. "I'm the president of a country".
The Chief Executive also said he is excited to meet Trump. "Just to show the guys that, if I can do it, why can't you?"
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Despite Duterte's tough talk, he faces serious headwinds at home - including dwindling domestic support for his campaign.
Another teenager, 14-year-old Reynaldo de Guzman, was found in early September, his body riddled with stab wounds, his head wrapped in packing tape.
Duterte cast De Guzman's death as a conspiracy meant to "sabotage" the police. Democratic Rep. James McGovern and Republican Rep.
Describing the spate as an "appalling epidemic", the congressmen in their letter underscored the fundamental importance of human rights and that every government should "afford their citizens the protection and due process of the law". (Duterte, in response, threatened to ban the two congressmen from coming to Manila).
A previous Philippines government brought a case against China in the worldwide courts over the country's vast claims to the waters, but Mr Duterte has been far less strident. He also claimed that the U.S. has no moral ascendancy to lecture him on human rights because of its atrocities during the Iraqi invasion, Vietnam War and the Philippine-American War.
"Obviously, Trump has made human rights a low priority", said Joshua Kurlantzick, senior fellow for Southeast Asia at the Council on Foreign Relations.
The Philippine president also said his government opted for Russian weapons because USA weapons were harder to procure.
"I know that I'd have an interesting time with him", he said, adding he will offer the United States leader a "good handshake". "I think it was in jest". "But so far the only practical Chinese security assistance has been a lot of second-hand assault rifles, which the Philippine military doesn't even want".
"We still prefer USA and Western equipment but they are very expensive". "And of course, most dramatically, the USA support once things blew up in Marawi - that, I think, came along at the ideal time to remind Duterte and the Philippines more generally that the U.S.is an indispensable security partner".
Trump also expressed support for Duterte's war on drugs, which has been heavily criticized here and overseas for the deaths of thousands of Filipinos. "Why should I defend a sandbar and kill the Filipinos because of a sandbar?" "That's the rule", Duterte said.
When Trump assumed the presidency last January, Duterte still hurled criticisms at the USA but expressed confidence that he would be able to get along well with the American leader.
"You will have to find a soldier or a policeman anywhere in the country where I ordered the killing of a man on bended knees, surrendering or lying down", he said. Yet Philippine trade secretary Ramon Lopez told Bloomberg that Duterte and Xi have a "very strong, close relationship like brothers", suggesting he will not broach the subject with force.